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Music Therapy, Pain Management, Direct Patient Care

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Music Therapy, How Is It Promoted For Use? American Cancer Society, Inc.:"Because of its soothing quality, proponents use music therapy for a variety of physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms. Music therapy is often used in cancer treatment to help reduce pain, anxiety, and nausea caused by chemotherapy. Some proponents believe music therapy may enhance the health care of pediatric oncology patients by promoting social interaction and cooperation. There is some evidence that music therapy reduces high blood pressure, rapid heart beat, depression, and sleeplessness. There are no claims music therapy can cure cancer or other diseases, but medical experts do believe it can reduce some symptoms, aid healing, improve physical movement, and enrich a patient's quality of life."
American Cancer Society, ATTN: Web
P.O. Box 102454 Atlanta, GA 30368-2454

Relaxation And Music Therapy For Postoperative Pain, Findings, Bandolier:"Twenty-one studies were included: 19 were controlled trials (11 were randomised, eight were not) and two were uncontrolled. Several therapies were assessed including jaw relaxation on pain during activity, Bensonís technique, rhythmic breathing, and the effects of different types of music. Most studies assessed about 15 patients per treatment group and all allowed use of opioids every 2-4 hours. No details of patient characteristics were provided. Relaxation or music therapy was reported to have worked in 6/11 randomised controlled trials, 7/8 nonrandomised controlled trials, and both uncontrolled studies. The reviewer concluded that relaxation/music therapy was effective in reducing affective and observed pain, but less effective at reducing sensory pain or opioid consumption."
Bandolier Office
Pain Research
The Churchill Oxford OX3 7LJ
Telephone +44 1865 226132 Fax +44 1865 226978, Bandolier@pru.ox.ac.uk

Music Therapy to Ease Pain and Emotional Distress in Patients With Hematologic Cancer Who Are Undergoing High-Dose Therapy and Stem Cell Transplantation, Clinicaltrials.gov:"Randomized trial to determine the effectiveness of music therapy to ease pain and emotional distress in patients with hematologic cancer who are undergoing high-dose therapy and stem cell transplantation."
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
New York, New York, 10021, United States; Recruiting
Barrie R. Cassileth, PhD 212-639-8629

Music therapy and anxiety following surgery, Internet Health Library:"It is well known that many patients become stressed and anxious prior to and after surgery. However, a report last year indicated that one means of helping reduce anxiety in patients is to incorporate music in in the Surgical Holding Area . In the study, one group of patients listed to music while a second group did not. The researchers observed that patients who listened to music while in the Surgical Holding Area had significantly less stress and anxiety than did those who did not listen to music. Both groups spent similar lengths of time in the Surgical Holding Area."

Music Therapy & Pain Management References:"This article discusses the profession of Music Therapy and how doctors and third party insurance payers are recognizing it as a valid adjunct to traditional therapies. It describes the research and success therapists have had with clients who have had strokes and clients who have had Parkinson's disease. It also shows that women who have used music therapy in labour and delivery have shown improved abilities to walk and reported decreased pain in childbirth. Deforia Lane, Ph.D., studied the immune response to singing and found increased levels of IgA after a vocal singing session. For children with cancer, this increase helps to stimulate their immune systems to help fight their disease."

Music Therapy as a practice in clinical settings:"After 80 years of practice and research, there now exist many references to the clinical use of music in medical/dental treatment. Music as an audio-analgesic in dentistry was one of the earliest and most thoroughly investigated areas. For example, a study was done in 1948, that combined music with nitrous oxide-oxygen anesthesia; it was reported that the presence of music reduced vomiting, struggling, delirium, and enabled rapid emergence from the anesthetic stage, and decreased chair occupation time (for review, see Cherry & Pallin, 1948). Similar results were obtained from similar studies (Prickett, C & Standley, J, 1994). For instance, in 1983, a group of Japanese researchers found a significant reduction in blood pressure and pon."

Music and Pain Management, Cheryl Bombei RN, Edited by Debra Wirth RN, University of Iowa, College of Nursing:"Music surrounds us in every aspect of our lives. What is music? According to Webster's dictionary, music is "the art of combining sounds or sequences of notes into harmonious patterns pleasing to the ear and satisfying to the emotions." Music is also an ancient art form used as a healing therapy in today's healthcare settings. It is an attempt to bring harmony back into the whole self by eliminating that which is causing disharmony (DeRungs, 1986). Music can be a powerful distraction, turning the patient's attention away from pain and promoting relaxation. It can be used in conjunction with pharmacological interventions and offer additional help to the patient in pain. Letting the patient choose the type of music they prefer is also important, giving them choices in their quest for pain relief.

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Freudian Slip:"This site is your source for information on how to help children and adolescents use popular music, something they already listen to and enjoy, as a way to express their feelings. Matthew J. Bush, MSW, LSW has developed some very exciting and innovative techniques for use in therapy with children and adolescents. On this site you will find articles about how popular music can be used in therapy, suggestions of popular music with therapeutic messages, and information about Matt's recent publication, Utilizing Music as a Coping Skill: Featuring the Music of Freudian Slip which was recently featured in an issue of Counseling Today!"
Matthew J. Bush, MSW, LSW
1 Center Square, Suite 207 Hanover, PA 17331

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