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Smallpox, Vaccinations

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Smallpox, The Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:"Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease. There is no specific treatment for smallpox disease, and the only prevention is vaccination. The name smallpox is derived from the Latin word for “spotted” and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of an infected person. There are two clinical forms of smallpox. Variola major is the severe and most common form of smallpox, with a more extensive rash and higher fever. There are four types of variola major smallpox: ordinary (the most frequent type, accounting for 90% or more of cases); modified (mild and occurring in previously vaccinated persons); flat; and hemorrhagic (both rare and very severe). Historically, variola major has an overall fatality rate of about 30%; however, flat and hemorrhagic smallpox usually are fatal. Variola minor is a less common presentation of smallpox, and a much less severe disease, with death rates historically of 1% or less."
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Tel: 404-639-3311 • Public Inquiries: 800-CDC-INFO • TTY: 888-232-6348


Department of Defense, Smallpox Vaccination Program:"Smallpox is a highly contagious disease that spreads from one person to another. Smallpox is a deadly disease that killed millions worldwide over hundreds of years. A smallpox outbreak would be highly disruptive, and significantly affect military readiness."
Military Vaccine (MILVAX) Agency
By Phone: 1-877-GET-VACC (1-877-438-8222) TOLL-FREE
761 DSN
703-681-4692 FAX
8am EST - 6pm EST, Monday - Friday (except Federal holidays)
By email: Vaccines@otsg.amedd.army.mil


Smallpox, Emedicine.com:"Smallpox (variola) represents both the zenith and nadir of human achievement. It is the only disease that has been eradicated through a concerted and extensive effort that transcended political and ideologic boundaries. Because of these efforts, not one documented naturally occurring case of this infection, which once caused high mortality rates, has occurred since October 26, 1977. (The last naturally occurring case involved an unvaccinated hospital cook in Somalia.) Smallpox officially was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1980. Smallpox also represents one of the most devastating potential biological weapons ever conceived."
Emedicine.com Main Office
1004 Farnam Street, Suite 300 Omaha, Nebraska 68102
Office: 402-341-3222 Fax: 402-341-3336


What Is Smallpox? Kidshealth.org:"You may have heard about smallpox and wondered what it is or whether you or anyone you know could get it. Some people are concerned that someday the germ that causes smallpox could be spread by people who want to use the disease as a weapon. But the chance of this happening is small, and the government and police are working on ways to protect us. In the meantime, learning about smallpox may help you feel less scared of it. So here are answers to some questions you might have:"


Smallpox, Mayoclinic.com:"Smallpox (variola) is a contagious, disfiguring and often deadly disease caused by the variola virus. It's believed to have first appeared in northeastern Africa or south-central Asia nearly 12,000 years ago. Since then, few other illnesses have had such a profound effect on human health and history. For millennia, smallpox ravaged Europe and Asia. It also devastated entire indigenous populations in the New World, including the Incas and Aztecs in Mexico, the American Indians and the aborigines of Australia. In the 20th century alone, an estimated 300 million people died of the disease."


Smallpox, Medline Plus Encyclopedia:"Causes, incidence, and risk factors. Smallpox was once found throughout the world, causing illness and death wherever it occurred. Smallpox was primarily a disease of children and young adults, with family members often infecting each other. A massive program by the World Health Organization (WHO) eradicated all known smallpox viruses from the world in 1977, except for samples that were saved by various governments for research purposes. The vaccine was discontinued in the United States in 1972. In 1980, WHO recommended that all countries stop vaccinating for smallpox."
Office of Communications and Public Liaison
National Library of Medicine
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland 20894
Phone: (301) 496-6308
Fax: (301) 496-4450
E-mail: publicinfo@nlm.nih.gov


Vaccinia (Smallpox) Vaccine, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR):"Variola virus is the etiological agent of smallpox. During the smallpox era, the only known reservoir for the virus was humans; no known animal or insect reservoirs or vectors existed. The most frequent mode of transmission was person-to-person, spread through direct deposit of infective droplets onto the nasal, oral, or pharyngeal mucosal membranes, or the alveoli of the lungs from close, face-to-face contact with an infectious person. Indirect spread (i.e., not requiring face-to-face contact with an infectious person) through fine-particle aerosols or a fomite containing the virus was less common (1,2)."
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd, MailStop K-95, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A


Smallpox: Occupational Safety & Health Administration:"Smallpox is an acute, contagious, and sometimes fatal disease caused by infection with a virus known as the variola virus. Smallpox outbreaks have occurred from time to time for thousands of years, but in 1980, the disease was declared eradicated following worldwide vaccination programs. Except for stockpiles in high-security laboratories, the virus has been eliminated. However, if obtained and deliberately released as a bioweapon, smallpox could cause a public health catastrophe."
Occupational Safety & Health Administration
200 Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20210


Smallpox, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services:"Smallpox Basics (Principios de la Viruela) Information for: Kids, Teens, Parents Laboratory Professionals Media Military Primary Health Care Providers Public Health Professionals Clinical Trials CDC Smallpox Response Plan and Guidelines Reference Materials Vaccine/Vaccination Information."
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
200 Independence Avenue, S.W. · Washington, D.C. 20201
Public Inquiries Hotline (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention):
English (888) 246-2675 | Español (888) 246-2857 | TTY (866) 874-2646
Hours: Mon-Fri 8am-11pm EST; Sat-Sun 10am-8pm EST


Smallpox, Communicable Disease Surveillance & Response (CSR), World Health Organization:"Smallpox is an acute contagious disease caused by Variola virus, a member of the orthopoxvirus family. It was one of the world's most feared diseases until it was eradicated by a collaborative global vaccination programme led by the World Health Organization. The last known natural case was in Somalia in 1977. Since then, the only known cases were caused by a laboratory accident in 1978 in Birmingham, England, which killed one person and caused a limited outbreak. Smallpox was officially declared eradicated in 1979."



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