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Gender Discrimination, Male Nurse Bias In Nursing

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Gender Pay Gap - Women Make Less Money, About.com:"Those who are against closing the gender pay gap believe that the gap exists because of of the characteristics associated with each gender. They believe the gap is due to gender-related differences in occupational choice, educational attainment, and prior work experience. For example women tend to fill the roles of lower-paying jobs (secretaries, nurses, teachers) while men fill the roles of higher-paying jobs (engineers, doctors, scientists). Since each woman has a choice in her education and career, if she enters a lower-paying job it is voluntarily and not due to gender discrimination."
http://usgovinfo.about.com/cs/censusstatistic/a/womenspay.htm

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Monday, February 28, 2005: A male nurse's perspective, BCHeights.com:"The debate surrounding gender in the medical field is highly sensitive and controversial. But when most people think about the inequalities within the sciences, they tend to forget that the odds can be stacked against men, too. Right here at Boston College, a small group of men is venturing into a field largely dominated by women - nursing. Male nurses are few and far between within the halls of Cushing, but they are successful in their endeavors to break the gender barriers, and they are leaving their mark on their fellow nurses-in-training."
http://www.bcheights.com/2.6178/a-male-nurse-s-perspective-1.917571

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Girlie men? Manly girls? The Governator and nursing's gender issues, The Center for Nursing Advocacy:"February 22, 2005 -- Today CNN's web site posted an unsigned AP story about recent charges by California nurses and teachers that Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger's policies and attitude toward them--including his references to them as "special interests"--reflect an ingrained hostility to women and "women's occupations." Probably unintentionally, the piece raises difficult questions about how society sees nursing, and how nurses advocate for their profession, including the pros and cons of using the profession's predominant gender as a political weapon."
The Center for Nursing Advocacy
203 Churchwardens Rd.
Baltimore, Maryland (MD) 21212-2937 USA
Phone: 1.410.323.1100
Fax: 1.443.705.0260
info@nursingadvocacy.org
http://www.nursingadvocacy.org/news/2005feb/22_cnn.html

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Equal Opportunity: Gender issues, International Council of Nurses:"Statistics in the United Kingdom show that while 93% of all nursing staff are women, men represent approximately 45% of all those who take up opportunities for higher education courses and accept senior/management positions. Contributing factors. No single cause can explain why the pay gap persists. Some argue that at least 15% of this gap is caused by direct or indirect discrimination. In addition, women's skills have traditionally been under-valued and sometimes ignored in job evaluations because they are regarded as natural female characteristics rather than acquired skills, e.g. social skills needed to achieve a professional job ormanage complex situations."
International Council of Nurses
3, Place Jean Marteau
1201 - Geneva
Switzerland
Telephone 41-22-908-01-00
Fax 41-22-908-01-01
E-mail General Inquiries icn@icn.ch
http://www.icn.ch/matters_equalop.htm

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Men in nursing: issues of gender segregation and hidden advantage. J Adv Nurs. 1999 Feb;29(2):523. Evans J.:"The small but growing number of men in the nursing profession does not herald a progressive integration of masculine and feminine sex roles. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that even in female-dominated occupations such as nursing, patriarchal gender relations which reflect a high valuation of all that is male and masculine, play a significant role in situating a disproportionate number of men in administrative and elite specialty positions. At the heart of this gender dynamic is the need to separate the masculine from the lesser valued feminine."
Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9292354

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Nurses unconcerned with gender biases, By Melinda Crowley, Wednesday, September 25, 2002, The Lantern.com:"Less than one in twelve nursing applicants male at Ohio State. According to the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, only an estimated 5.4 percent of American R.N.s are men. "Nursing has been a female-dominated career path throughout history," said Mike Monjot, a senior in nursing. "For men to enter into that definitely does not follow the usual gender roles." Monjot, who is the only male working in the Ohio State University Medical Center's postpartum depression ward, does not think men should hesitate in considering a future in nursing."
http://www.thelantern.com/news/2002/09/25/Campus/Nurses.Unconcerned.With.Gender.Biases-281334.shtml

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Gender Discrimination In Nursing, Malenursemagazine.com:"The following paper examines the history and evidence of discrimination of the male side of nursing. There will also be further examination of the evidence of male discrimination including statistics, organizational issues, and communication channels. Also discussed will be several barriers that must be overcome by male nurses, including administrative, peer, and patient issues. For the nursing profession's "men in white", discrimination is a daily occurrence in a female dominated profession."
http://www.malenursemagazine.com/gender_discrimination.html

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The Effect Of Expanding Gender Roles On Behavioral Problems: A Comparison Of Female College Students In Taiwan, Multiculturaljournal.com:"Fu's (1993) Behavior Problem Checklist was used to contrast behavioral problems of Data Management and Nursing Degree Programs from Jen-Te Junior College of Medical Nursing and Management. These two groups were selected because of their traditional gender segregation, with Data Management Degrees traditionally pursued by men and Nursing Degrees sought by women. Nursing students proclaimed to have more "normal" problems than their Data Management peers. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups related to "serious behavioral problems." The possible influence of gender stereotypes and social discrimination is discussed as well as implications for these findings."
http://www.multiculturaljournal.com/current/brammer2.html

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Hidden advantages for men in nursing. Williams CL. Nurs Adm Q. 1995 Winter;19(2):63-70.:"Men comprise a small minority of professional nurses in the United States. Yet men in nursing earn more money than women on average, and they are overrepresented in administration and other prestigious specialties. This article explores the hidden advantages for men in the profession, focusing on (1) hiring and promotions, (2) relationships with physicians and colleagues, and (3) relationships with patients. Data from in-depth interviews with male nurses throughout the United States are used to demonstrate that cultural and social stereotypes about masculinity pressure men into some of the best-paying and most prestigious nursing specialties. Administrators are encouraged to develop more gender-sensitive criteria for evaluating performance that reward both reputedly "masculine" and "feminine" qualities."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7830974

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Reverse discrimination in nursing leadership: hitting the concrete ceiling. Porter-O'Grady T., Nurs Adm Q. 1995 Winter;19(2):56-62.:"Discrimination has many facets. In nursing there is as much discrimination as there is in any other group. Reverse discrimination, that is discrimination toward men in nursing, is evident even though it is well hidden. There are many situations and opportunities for the minority group in nursing (men) to experience the vagaries of gender prejudice in the same concentration as women experience in their attempt to integrate in more male-dominated professions. It is valuable to take time to denote the characteristics of gender bias in nursing and to identify mechanisms for handling it."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=7830972&dopt=Abstract

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Nurses executive characteristics. Gender differences. Nurs Manage. 1996 Dec;27(12):33-7; quiz 38.:"Do male nurse executives working in a female-dominated profession adopt more of the female leadership characteristics? A study investigates gender differences of nurse executives on a variety of managerial attributes: sex role, supervision, power, career commitment and work/family conflict. Results also were compared to executives of other professions."
School of Physical Therapy, Texas Woman's University in Denton, USA.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9004699

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Male Call, Nurseweek:"With a severe nursing shortage gripping the country, the profession is looking for a few good men. Recruitment efforts seek to prove that nursing is a great job for women and men. In many cases, those barriers are sociological. Although more men than ever are entering the profession — the total has jumped from 57,000 in 1983 to 164,000 in 2002, according to a July 11, 2003, USA Today article — men still represent just a fraction of the total number of nurses in the U.S. According to the American Journal of Nursing, men made up just 5.9% of the nursing population in 2003. The reasons are varied, but chief among them is a simple misconception among many: that nursing is a job best suited for women."
http://www.nurseweek.com/news/Features/04-12/MenInNursing_print.html

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Male Call, Nurseweek.com:"Despite cultural bias and relatively small numbers, more men are making contributions to the profession and discovering its rewards. Statements like "Why are you only a nurse?" or "You're too smart to be a nurse" haunt male RNs. Yet most choose nursing school over medical school for the same reason female nurses say they made that career decision to work directly. When Mark Barnett's heating and air-conditioning company was sold and he lost his job, the Texas dad went hunting for a new career."
http://www.nurseweek.com/news/features/02-10/malecall.asp

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Men at Work, By Cathryn Domrose, August 27, 2003, Nurseweek:"Thanks in part to campaigns designed to appeal to masculine sensibilities, more men are entering nursing—and discovering the joys of a profession traditionally dominated by women At the most recent American Nurses Association annual convention, Gene Tranbarger, Ed.D., RN, saw signs that times might finally be changing for men in nursing: They were on the bathroom doors. Tranbarger, president of the American Assembly for Men in Nursing, has attended ANA conventions since the late 1950s. "One of the first actions was to declare all the bathrooms female," he said-a common practice at conventions of any group where most members are women. Men had to go to their hotel rooms or into another building to use the facilities, he said."
http://www.nurseweek.com/news/features/03-08/manenough_print.html

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Male Nurses Still Face Bias, Nursingworld.org:"The evolution of nursing may halt gender discrimination in the profession. David Sprouse, EdD, RN, is sure he was denied a promotion in nursing at least twice because he’s a man. Both instances occurred with the same manager, and he eventually left that job. The experience was demoralizing, and he responded by doing what he thought was his only option—to find another job. “I went looking for another job, but that doesn’t change anything,” he mused. For some men, the discrimination they’ve undergone has been almost too subtle to name, yet the effects are still quite real. Michael Evans, PhD, RN, a nursing administrator for 20 years and a former member of the American Nurses Association’s board of directors, said he felt discriminated against when applying for administrative positions in the past."
http://www.nursingworld.org/ajn/1998/sept/issu098f.htm

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Gender bias in nursing care? Gender-related differences in patient satisfaction with the quality of nursing care, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences:"Gender-related differences in experience with nursing care, was studied using data from a Norwegian survey of patient-satisfaction. The survey included 1469 male and 1226 female patients. Results showed that young female patients were less content with all aspects of nursing care when compared with young male patients."
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1471-6712.2002.00045.x/abs/

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The contribution of gender-role orientation, work factors and home stressors to psychological well-being and sickness absence in male- and female-dominated occupational groups. Soc Sci Med. 2002 Feb;54(4):481-92.:"We hypothesised that health might be impaired among women working in the male-dominated occupation (accountancy), and men in the female-dominated occupation (nursing), but that effects might be moderated by job strain (perceptions of high demand and low control), work and home hassles, and traditional male (instrumentality) and female (expressivity) psychological characteristics."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11848269

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Gender And Racial Discrimination In Pay And Promotion For Nhs Nurses, IDEAS at UConn Economics:"For many years the NHS has been subject to allegations that gender and racial discrimination are a feature of the internal labour market for qualified nurses. This paper examines this issue with regard to the promotion process using 1994 survey data. We start by rejecting the assumption of covariate exogeneity inherent in the ordered probit model. A full simultaneous model is then developed which has important consequences for estimates of the influence of gender, ethnicity, training and career interruptions. We find evidence of significant differences in speed of promotion between gender and ethnic groups, which imply large differences in career earnings."
http://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp85.html

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What is sex or gender discrimination? workplacefairness.org:"Sex or gender discrimination is treating individuals differently in their employment specifically because an individual is a woman or a man. If you have been rejected for employment, fired, or otherwise harmed in employment because of your sex or gender, then you may have suffered sex or gender discrimination. In everyday language as well as in the law, the terms “gender” and “sex” are used inter-changeably, but the two terms have different meanings. Social scientists use the term “sex” to refer to a person's biological or anatomical identity as male or female, while reserving the term “gender” for the collection of characteristics that are culturally associated with maleness or femaleness. Discrimination is generally illegal regardless of whether it is based on sex, or gender, or both sex and gender."
Workplace Fairness
44 Montgomery Street, Suite 2080
San Francisco, CA 94104
Phone: (415) 362-7373
Fax: (415) 677-9445
info@workplacefairness.org
http://www.workplacefairness.org/index.php?page=sexgender&agree=yes

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See also:

Age Discrimination Takes Its Toll by Paula Span, January 12, 2012, 12:07 pm:"Raise your hand if you've felt that people treat you with less respect or courtesy than others, that they act as if you're not smart, that you get poorer service in stores and restaurants than others — in short, if you've felt discriminated against because of age, gender, ethnicity, income, disability, appearance, even marital status. A startling proportion of older people report that they've experienced discrimination: 63 percent, in a study recently published in Research on Aging. The most commonly cited cause? "Thirty percent report being mistreated because of their age," said the lead author Ye Luo, a Clemson University sociologist. Perceived discrimination because of gender, race or ancestry, disabilities or appearance followed in smaller proportion"
http://newoldage.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/12/age-discrimination-takes-its-toll/

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Gender Bias, Education, 212.net:"Our children are receiving messages from the educational system that only serve to reinforce stereotypical gender roles for males and females. The fact is that males receive more attention from teachers in the classroom than girls do. Boys are called on in class more than girls, and class discussion is often dominated by the same three or four students, usually boys. Gender bias is especially evident in science and math classes, beginning mainly at the middle school level. In many cases, the teachers are not even aware of these biases in the classroom."
http://www.212.net/crime/education.htm

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Do nurse anesthetists demonstrate gender bias in treating pain? AANA J. 2003 June;71(3);206-9:"A major responsibility of the nurse anesthetist is providing adequate pain relief. Current research suggests that provider gender, as well as patient gender, may affect the clinical assessment and treatment of pain. Implications of the undertreatment of pain may be avoided if the anesthetist is aware of potential gender bias when approaching a given clinical situation."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=12847944&dopt=Abstract

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Gender and age bias in triage decisions., Arslanian-Engoren C., Pubmed:"Recently it has been recognized that women are less likely than men to be diagnosed with a myocardial infarction (MI) or to receive early or aggressive treatment and are more likely than men to die of an MI. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the triage decisions made by ED nurses for persons with symptoms suggestive of MI. The theoretical framework for this investigation was Hammond's lens model for clinical inference and Evan's two-stage reasoning model. METHOD: Four focus group sessions were conducted."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10748383&dopt=Abstract

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Gender differences in pain, fatigue, and depression in patients with cancer, PubMed:"A quick review of virtually any research topic documents the pervasiveness of sex and gender bias throughout all of science. A large portion of both animal and human research has been, and continues to be, done primarily with male subjects. This gender bias influences research results and often leads to inappropriate and questionable generalizations of research findings, usually from studies done with male participants to females. Needless to say, this bias exists in symptom management research on pain, fatigue, and depression in patients with cancer."
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15263057&dopt=Abstract

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Last updated by Andrew Lopez, RN on Thursday, March 28, 2013


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